There are 2 main types of bankruptcy for consumers:
Chapter 7 bankruptcy allows someone to eliminate the most unsecured debts in a matter of just a few months in return for giving up all of their "non-exempt" property.
Most people in debt who file for Chapter 7 may not be available to pay off unsecured debt creditors.
This is known as "no asset" bankruptcy, and most Chapter 7 bankruptcy are of this type.
Chapter 13 bankruptcy takes about 3 to 5 years. Rather than giving up property that you own, you may choose to repay a portion of your debts and live within a budget that is kept monitored closely by a bankruptcy court trustee. If you don't think you can manage required monthly payments, your Chapter 13 bankruptcy fails and your debt will remain (unless you convert to a Chapter 7 bankruptcy).
Bankruptcy is a federal legal status of a person in debt or other entity that is not able to repay the debts it owes to their creditors. In many jurisdictions, bankruptcy is imposed by an order of the court, often initiated by the debtor.
Bankruptcy, however, is not the only legal status that a person in debt or other entity may have, and when we say bankruptcy, it isn't synonym for insolvency. In the United States, bankruptcy is applied more broadly to formal insolvency proceedings.
Federal student loans are loans that must be repaid, plus an agreed upon interest rate. New federal student loans are run through the Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP). An FDLP student loan is originally borrowed from or currently owned by the Department of Education. Any federal student loan borrowed after June 2010 are FDLP loans, though the barrower of the student loan could receive FDLP loans before that time.